How The 5G Revolution Will Drive Future Innovations Of IoT

This article originally appeared on Forbes by Yosi Fait.

As is now recent history, smartphones were the catalyst of major change for mobile carriers — not only the mobile market but the industry as a whole. The arrival of the smartphone led to the birth app App Store, Google Store and other digital distribution platforms, transforming the mobile marketplace virtually overnight.

Today, the connectivity that supports the ubiquitous delivery of those consumer mobile services is evolving to permeate all areas of our lives, as the internet of things (IoT) becomes a reality. Mobile carriers around the world are hard at work developing and making plans for next-generation 5G networks — and as the smartphones are considered the most disruptive and transformative product in mobile telecoms, this revolution will deliver by far the most intelligent mobile network the world has ever seen, as well as being the most “open,” creating exciting new opportunities for IoT innovation at the edge — something my team is incredibly excited over. 5G will not only enrich experiences for existing applications but also enable new IoT use cases which cannot be enabled by 4G, which helped launch the app revolution and breathed a second wind into the largest internet companies. 5G will serve and change how we think about connectivity for home, enterprises and automotive.

There is a multitude of use cases that become reality in a 5G world, many of which are consumer related, but as a CEO of a company focused on IoT solutions, I am most excited about the industrial applications that will transform business as we know it. Applications built on underlying technologies such as augmented reality, virtual reality, telepresence and artificial intelligence will benefit from massive data pipes and ultra-low latency. Fixed-wireless services delivering fiber-like speeds will enable UHD video streaming and entirely new business models for cable companies and streaming subscription providers. Cars and drones will communicate with each other and coordinate with things around them through the low-latency network. Industrial automation and robotics will finally be a reality over wide area network. And finally, 5G will get us closer to realizing the true IoT world of millions of sensor devices connected to the network.

5G is not comprised of a standalone new technology, its disruptive nature comes from its ability to aggregate the power of heterogeneous new and existing networks, mobile, fixed and wireless to create flexibility. Networks are building 5G with an open access approach, and with multiple connectivity schemes at its heart, it will also pave the way for a whole new range of services, solutions and applications, with a progressive technology shift towards new frontiers.

5G enables deployment and allocation of dedicated “network slices” where, within one coverage area or functional boundary, different services and solutions could occupy their own slice of the network, with different speeds, guaranteed quality of service and reporting. For the IoT, this will create new possibilities for connected devices across all market sectors. There could be one slice supporting the connected car services, while another is serving environmental monitoring devices. The latter might only transmit when certain conditions change, while a connected car services slice — may be leveraging access to information from network resources near an interstate highway — might be constantly blasting traffic or route information to passing cars through new, enhanced network broadcasting modes.

These solutions will once again be enabled by the investment mobile carriers and the broader telecom sector are making — an investment that, countless other companies will take advantage of to deliver their advanced services.

The impact of 5G on the telecoms ecosystem is set to be dramatic, and it will resonate on a global scale. The carrier landscape will change beyond recognition — mobile networks will have higher data rates, lower latency and a better energy consumption both on the network as well as device side. This combination of capabilities will unleash the potential for a huge range of business cases across all vertical markets. This is the real chance to create a truly connected world through IoT.

Previous generations of mobile networks have been based on building the technology platform first and then looking at the use cases. For 5G, it is exactly the opposite. With arguably a limitless number of use cases, 5G will catalyze, inspire and generate a huge range of new business cases for the IoT, and the market must be ready to capitalize on that promise. 5G represents massive opportunities for new sources of revenue streams and will be the foundation of economic growth on a scale yet to be completely discovered for businesses in nearly all industries.

Yet as with all the best technology advancements, 5G will build on what we have already, enabling the players with foresight to protect and enhance their investments. As for us in the world of IoT, many businesses have begun supporting a rapidly growing market of modules, sensors, connectivity and delivery platforms. The 5G wave will unleash new levels of creativity, use case execution and will not only accelerate the digital transformation of business but also reinvent how governments and organizations protect and enhance the lives of citizens worldwide.

Society is still far from realizing the benefits of 5G, but the momentum and investments being made by nearly every player in the industry and by governments at all levels is truly massive. Over the next years, we all will see a new spark of innovation and the acceleration of the digital transformation of enterprise and organizations because of 5G. The IoT will be supercharged beyond everyone’s imagination, and I can’t wait to take part.

5G is almost here — here’s how everyone’s getting ready

This article originally appeared on The Verge by Chaim Gartenberg.

5G is coming, and it’s going to have a massive impact on almost every facet of how we use technology, with faster speeds and lower latency theoretically opening up huge new frontiers in everything from smartphones to self-driving cars.

But the future of mobile networks isn’t here yet. And with something as complex as 5G, dozens of companies, carriers, and device manufacturers all need to work together for this kind of rollout to happen. Here’s where everything stands right now, though:

We’re still in the early days of 5G, and news will accelerate as we get closer to networks rolling out and hardware releasing that support it. We’ll continue to update this post will all the new details, so check back often.

WHAT IS 5G?

On a basic level, 5G is the fifth generation of cellular networking. It’s what comes after our current 4G / LTE networks, much in the same way that LTE was a radical shift forward from 3G. Think of how much the way we used and interacted with our phones shifted when 3G data was first introduced, or how things changed again when high-speed LTE data came around. That’s the kind of change we’re looking at with 5G.

But on a more technical level, “5G” is an agreed upon set of standards defined by the International Telecommunication Union (the ITU) and the 3GPP, who work together with hardware companies and carriers to define what exactly a 5G network actually is.

And over the past few months, we’ve actually reached two general definitions for those: the non-standalone 5G New Radio network, which (as the name implies) is built off of existing LTE networks and hardware, and standalone 5G NR networks, which allows for new deployments of 5G in places that didn’t necessarily have that existing infrastructure.

The non-standalone standard was finished in December 2017, while the standalone standard was finalized in June 2018. Having extra time to work on it and being built on existing infrastructure means that when we do see the first real 5G networks start to roll out in 2019, they’ll likely be based on that first.

From a technical perspective, what makes a 5G network a 5G network is a little more complex than just “it’s faster.” There’s a variety of pieces toward reaching those speeds — use of technologies like carrier aggregation, multiple antenna arrays (MIMO and Massive MIMO, new, higher frequency spectrum bands, and of course, the most talked about aspect: millimeter wave frequencies, which are dramatically higher than the ones that we currently use for cellular data and can offer much faster speeds, but have a far shorter range and ability to pass through walls and buildings.

What all this means is that the 5G specification provides goalposts for carriers to reach with their networks, and a set of standardized technologies and tools to get there. How it reaches you — the consumers — is up to the carriers on how they’ll be implementing 5G, and which of these various technologies and spectrum bands they’ll be using to do it.

CARRIERS

That brings us to the most important part of the state of 5G: what the major carriers are actually doing to bring about these next-gen networks. Here’s where everyone stands.

AT&T: AT&T started off its 5G network on the wrong foot with its “5G Evolution” network in 2017 — which wasn’t actually 5G at all, despite the name. But the company did promise in January to roll out real, 3GPP-standard based 5G in a dozen markets by the end of 2018.

So far, AT&T has announced six of the 12: Dallas, Atlanta, Waco, Charlotte, Raleigh, and Oklahoma City. There aren’t a lot of details on what parts of the spectrum AT&T is planning to use beyond the fact that it will utilize both “mmWave to provide mobile 5G first,” followed by additional spectrum bands in the future.

Verizon: Verizon is working on a different angle than most with its 5G rollout, focusing first on a broadband service launching in Indianapolis, Houston, Sacramento, and Los Angeles in 2018, before following that up with a mobile 5G service in 2019.

That gives Verizon an edge in some areas — barring any issues, it’ll be the first 5G service to launch. But the real prize is true mobile 5G, for which Verizon hasn’t shared as much of its plans yet.

That said, Verizon has already announced at least one phone that will work with its mobile 5G network when it does launch: the Motorola Moto Z3, which will get a 5G Moto Mod accessory sometime next year.

T-Mobile: T-Mobile first announced plans in 2017 to begin rolling out its 5G network in 2019, with a full nationwide rollout by 2020. As of February of this year, though, the company has accelerated those plans: it’s already starting to develop its 5G network this year, and plans to be in 30 cities by the end of 2018, including New York, Los Angeles, Dallas, and Las Vegas. The company also recently signed a $3.5 billion deal with Nokia to provide 5G technology, software, and services as it works to build out that network

From a technological perspective, T-Mobile is planning on utilizing both its 600 MHz chunk of low-band spectrum and 28 GHz millimeter wave portions of the spectrum for its 5G network.

As a separate note: T-Mobile and Sprint are currently in the process of trying to merge, and a big reason the two companies are claiming to do so is that together, they’d be better equipped to create a 5G network. It sounds like a good idea on paper, but neither company has provided a whole lot of detail as to what the benefits of that would be relative to competing in an open market instead to drive innovation, and they are instead more focused on appealing to a specific mindset of individuals who believe that countries like China, Japan, or South Korea are out to defeat the US when it comes to 5G networking.

Sprint: Sprint is also working on its own 5G network, targeting the same late 2019 date as almost every other carrier. Sprint is targeting the 2.5GHz band of spectrum for its network, and it has already started building out Massive MIMO antennas — technology that serves as a precursor to 5G that can be upgraded later on — in Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, and Washington, DC.

Sprint has also made the most noise about actual consumer 5G hardware, promising a 5G phone with LG in the first half of next year and 5G PCs with Intel. All these plans may change though, depending on how the T-Mobile merger shakes out.

HARDWARE:

When it comes to actual phones with 5G, we’re still pretty early in the game. Most companies are focused on releasing phones that you’ll be able to buy this year, but there are a few developments on the 5G front already — and we’ll likely start to hear even more in 2019 at events like CES and Mobile World Congress at the beginning of next year, so check back here soon for more updates.

Image: Qualcomm

Qualcomm: Qualcomm doesn’t actually make phones, but it’s a hugely important piece of the 5G puzzle, given that the company provides modem and processor chipsets for a massive chunk of the market. To that end, the company is already working on its Snapdragon X50 Modem for 5G, with major companies like Nokia / HMD, Sony, Xiaomi, Oppo, Vivo, HTC, LG, Asus, ZTE, Sharp, and Fujitsu all on board.

Additionally, Qualcomm recently announced its QTM052 mmWave antennas specifically for phones, which could be a key part of getting ultra-fast 5G internet on our mobile devices.

Intel: Intel has struggled of late as it comes to making headway in the mobile market — most prominently, the company’s modems appear in some iPhone models (and possibly all of this year’s models) — but they’ve tended to perform worse than their Qualcomm counterparts. But 5G may offer a fresh chance to turn things around, with Intel already announcing its first 5G modemfor phones, cars, drones, and other connected devices, along with a partnership with Microsoft, Dell, HP, and Lenovo to build 5G laptops.

Samsung: Samsung also hasn’t announced a 5G phone yet, but it’s got the next best thing: its new Exynos 5100 modem, which Samsung says is fully compatible with the 3GPP’s 5G standard. Included is support for both the sub-6GHz and mmWave portions of the electromagnetic spectrums, as well as legacy networks like, 2G, 3G, and 4G LTE — all in a single chip. Now all we need is a phone that’ll use it.

Huawei: Huawei makes its own processors and modems, and it’s not missing out on 5G, either. The company announced its Balong 5G01 chipset based on the 3GPP standards at MWC earlier this year. And at Mobile World Congress Shanghai, it announced both a 5G-ready Kirin chip for release sometime in 2019, and a 5G smartphone set for June 2019, although there are not a lot of details yet on either of those.

Photo: Natt Garun / The Verge

Motorola: Motorola is the closest to having actually announced a 5G phone — sort of. Technically, the Moto Z3 doesn’t support 5G yet, but Motorola is promising that it’ll get support for Verizon’s forthcoming 5G network sometime in early 2019 with a Moto Mod accessory.

LG: LG has announced that it’ll be releasing a 5G phone sometime in the first half of 2019 that will work with Sprint’s network, but that’s about all we’ve got to go on so far. Given that LG was listed as one of Qualcomm’s 5G partners using the chip maker’s Snapdragon X50 5G NR modems, it seems likely it’ll show up in LG’s phone.

Xiaomi: Xiaomi is already starting to tease its upcoming Mi Mix 3 flagship, and product management director Donovan Sung has already confirmed that the bezel-less sliding phone will include 5G support whenever it does launch, despite the fact that there aren’t actually any 5G networks up and running yet. (It’s also not clear what chipset the Mi Mix 3 is using for its 5G support yet, although like LG, Xiaomi is one of the companies that has partnered with Qualcomm).

Image: Xiaomi / Lin Bin (via Weebo)

Apple: Notably missing in all of this is Apple. As one of the world’s preeminent smartphone companies, whatever side of the 5G line Apple ends up on will almost certainly have massive ramifications for the rest of the industry. But for now, the company has remained characteristically tight-lipped as to its 5G plans. But if past history is anything to go by, its likely the Cupertino company will sit the first rounds out, waiting for things like battery life and network support to improve before it enters the 5G fray, much like it did with the iPhone 5 and LTE support the last time around.

Hey, Alexa: California Just Passed Internet of Things Bills

This article originally appeared on Bloomberg by Laura Mahoney.

Internet-connected devices sold in California, such as thermostats, televisions, and security cameras, would need reasonable security features by January 2020 under two bills headed to Gov. Jerry Brown (D).

The two identical bills would apply to devices that can connect directly or indirectly to the internet and are assigned internet protocol or Bluetooth addresses. Smart home devices like the Amazon Echo and Google Home would fall under the bills.

The proposals come amid rising privacy and security concerns about Internet of Things devices, including the potential for data collection from users.

The bills intentionally lack specifics about what reasonable security features the devices must have, Sen. Hannah-Beth Jackson (D), the author of one of the bills, has said. It is up to the manufactures to decide what steps to take.

But manufacturers argue the bills are too vague and would be fodder for litigation. They also contend the bills don’t apply to companies that import and resell connected devices made in other countries under their own labels.

S.B. 327 by Jackson won a final vote of 28-9 in the Senate Aug. 29 to accept amendments made while the bill was in the Assembly. It passed the Assembly 46-20 Aug. 28 and first passed the Senate in January.

“This bill, if enacted, will secure our smart homes and our smart cities from being leveraged against us,” Jackson said on the Senate floor Aug. 28.

Two Bills

An identical bill, A.B. 1906 by Assemblywoman Jacqui Irwin (D), won a final vote of 48-14 in the Assembly Aug. 30 to accept Senate amendments. It passed the Senate Aug. 29 with a 29-8 vote and first passed the Assembly in May.

The bills are joined together, so that both must be signed by Gov. Jerry Brown (D) for either to take effect. Brown hasn’t taken a position on the bills. He has until Sept. 30 to sign or veto them.

The responsibility for reasonable security for the devices would be on manufacturers or those who contract with manufacturers to make devices offered for sale in California.

Medical devices and other items subject to federal standards would be exempt from the bill.

The bills are opposed by the Custom Electronic Design & Installation Association, Entertainment Software Association, and National Electrical Manufacturers Association. They are sponsored by Common Sense Kids Action and have support from the Consumer Federation of America, Electronic Frontier Foundation and Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, among others.

Smart city technology: It’s all about the Internet of Things

This article originally appeared on Information Age by Nick Ismail.

The umbrella term of a smart city, is a city that uses data and technologies to improve the lives of the citizens and businesses that inhabit it. So, what are these technologies?

It really boils down to one: The Internet of Things (IoT). The smart city technology.

The key technology behind the success of smart city initiatives, whether that’s improving pollution levels or traffic conditions, is the IoT. The IoT is a network of physical connected devices, like vehicles or home appliances, that enable these ‘things’ to connect and exchange data. This in turn, is creating never-before-seen opportunities to converge the physical and the digital – via data analytics – to improve efficiency (both in public and private sectors), drive economic benefits and improve livelihoods.

In an interview with Information Age, Stephen Brobst – CTO of Teradata – confirmed that the IoT is the most fundamental technology behind smart cities: “The bottom line is that sensor technology in the IoT context is key. When I say IoT context I mean that we get a view of the whole city across these different domains of the life of the city as it’s captured in the sensor data.”

Unlocking the value of IoT value will allow those cities who are committed to smart, to gather, aggregate and normalise information from siloed city applications; pave the way for a future of smart cities affecting everything from lighting, parking, traffic and waste management, citizen engagement, safety and security. And develop a new and comprehensive ecosystem to empower city managers, who are expected to invest $80 billion in smart cities this year, in order to make better, data-driven decisions.

Connectivity is key

The biggest factor that could potentially damage the smart city dream is the problem of connectivity. Without a strong connection between the thousands, if not millions of devices across a city, the IoT devices are rendered obsolete. The smart city technology would be dead.

Paul Carter, CEO of independent network benchmarking firm, Global Wireless Solutions explains that “Integral to widespread, robust 4G and later 5G networks throughout London will be a much heavier reliance on ‘small cells’, to boost connectivity in those hard to reach not-spots.”

“This means that local authorities will need to work closely (and the sooner the better) with network operators to allow the installation of these units on lampposts and buildings, to provide connectivity wherever it may be needed. The government can also assist operators by allowing them, where practical, to deploy hardware such as phone masts on government-owned buildings and facilities. This will again help enhance coverage, but with minimal interference to the interests of private property.”

Smart cities need high-quality digital infrastructure, agrees Tim Stone – venture partner director at IoT investor, Breed Reply – “but one of the most significant challenges is for businesses to get access to the data,” which has been generated from the IoT.

“In many cases, this data will be sensitive, especially in areas like health and transport. The public needs confidence that information is secure before it can be opened up to new technology that can make a difference. Concerns over security can make cities tend towards either not implementing new technology at all or only working with bigger companies. These companies often have competing corporate priorities or set products and like any market that is dominated by a few big players, what is needed is a vibrant, innovative market that challenges their wisdom.”

Global smart city drive

A number of cities around the world are making the commitment to smart cities and to the IoT. For example, in the US, 66% of the cities are investing in smart city technologies , like smart meters, intelligent traffic signals and RFID sensors in paved areas.

“It’s not just cities getting in on the smart city game,” according to Carter. “Many vendors such as Amazon and Google are trying to be part of this exciting trend. From drones to delivery bots to the success of the on-demand economy, cities and businesses are becoming increasingly smarter, connected spaces.”

“It is little wonder governments are focusing on smart cities. Smart city technology can improve the quality of life in cities, help councils and city governments provide improved and sustainable services, and safeguard their infrastructure. This will help states and local governments deliver both critical and non-critical services to citizens.”

The Winning Formula: How Leading Organizations Are Leveraging The Internet Of Things

This article originally appeared on Forbes by Insights Team.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is more than a technical network of connected devices and systems; it is a potential source for unlimited business value and opportunity. The challenge is being able to identify and act on the information and capabilities that IoT delivers. Only about half of executives in a recent Forbes Insights survey of 700 executives feel they are making progress with their Internet of Things efforts.

Yet organizations that embrace IoT in a big way—integrating IoT-driven data and insights into all aspects of their operations and processes—are seeing great success, and higher corporate revenue. Of the 700 executives surveyed by Forbes Insights, most, if not all, are working with or piloting IoT systems to some degree. About 14% already report having extensive IoT deployments across their enterprises, and it’s these “leaders” who are embracing new approaches and philosophies and working closely with their employees and partners to build IoT success into their corporate culture.

For these leaders, IoT means business growth. They are seven times more likely to see high rates of growth versus the early-stage learners—those organizations that are just starting to explore IoT. Close to three-fourths of the leaders report corporate growth exceeding 10% in the most recent fiscal year, compared with only 12% of the learners. Three-fourths of IoT leaders also credit IoT directly for increased revenue and profitability.

For many enterprises, the value comes from data that is no longer trapped in silos and is thus capable of being shared across the enterprise. Appliance maker Sub-Zero, for example, increased its IoT capabilities to combine multiple factory networks into a unified system that integrates with IT. Sub-Zero deployed the Cisco Connected Factory—a solution built with standards-based Intel technology—and achieved a $2,500 increase in hourly revenue for each of its production lines. In addition, because it now had data from sensors within its products, it also saw a $140,000 reduction in travel and field-testing costs.

Along with enhanced revenue and reductions in cost, companies leading in IoT report a range of benefits, including greatly expanded connectivity, better ability to meet compliance requirements, greater data security with on-site processing, and improved control over operating environments and assets. Here we delve deeper into how these leading organizations are approaching IoT and offer lessons learned.

Lessons From The Leaders

  • Each IoT story varies by industry, as well as company.There are many dimensions to IoT, depending upon industry and use cases. The use cases among IoT leaders include enhancing their ability to meet compliance requirements (43%)—very much an industry-specific challenge—as well as employing IoT to increase productivity and open up new markets.

Consider the impact of IoT on advanced manufacturing operations. The emerging factory of the future is highly connected, with intelligent processes, thanks to IoT and the related Industrial IoT (IIoT). “Fueled by the rapid rise of smart technologies, manufacturers are bringing together IIoT, connected machines, robots, sensors, smart devices, generalized compute technologies, and a steady stream of real-time data analytics to automate many of the mundane—and not so mundane—tasks of the factory and the larger manufacturing system,” writes Dr. Irene Petrick, director of industrial innovation at Intel’s Internet-of-Things Group, and Dr. Faith McCreary, principal engineer and researcher. “They are doing more than just increasing industrial automation, they are helping create ‘intelligent’ factories which are marked by autonomous production, hyper-agility, and real-time analytics that provide operational transparency and make data a transformative force for the business.”

At Shimane Fujitsu, which produces business notebooks and tablets, visualizing factory processes with IoT sensor data is helping the company’s operations teams track product location and status, simplify prioritization, and save time and money. The data has helped the company overcome production errors that were inhibiting the expedited shipment of products. As a product enters the rework area, a sensor is attached and scanned to associate it with the product number to track its physical location. Location and status information is then provided to the factory manager through a desktop interface. Next, the system captures and analyzes video images of the inspection process and transmits it through the Intel IoT Gateway to a file server, while metadata, such as transmission time, product number and video file path, is sent to the cloud platform. This data provides the line supervisor with a visual representation of every product, its error and the inspection stats. This helps to reduce the probability of errors during the inspection process, but Shimane Fujitsu also reports decreased lead times and shipping costs.

For organizations such as city governments, IoT takes on a different cast. Streetlights, for example, can be transformed into smart nodes for IoT. The City of San Diego recently deployed 3,200 intelligent nodes and, as a result, achieved a 60% reduction in energy use for its streetlights and $2.8 million savings in annual energy costs. The city’s streetlights now integrate LED lighting, wide-angle cameras and other sensors with preconfigured and local intelligence based on Intel technology. This has cut energy costs even further, since streetlights are dimmed until pedestrians or vehicles are detected, and allowed for the collection of near-real-time traffic data.

Likewise, in Portland, Oregon, sensors have been attached to streetlights to count vehicles and pedestrians and track vehicle speeds, all with the goal of increasing public safety. The real-time data and associated analytics now available to traffic engineers and city officials will help with efforts to improve traffic flow—not only among vehicles, but for pedestrians and bicyclists as well.

  • IoT leaders are stepping out of their business models. A company’s business model may have served it well for decades, but with so many digital upstarts and disruptors, it is time to be open to new models. IoT is not only delivering great efficiency for manufacturers such as Shimane Fujitsu but is also opening new doors for just about all the leaders in the Forbes Insights survey. Healthcare organizations, for example, are employing IoT to increase the quality of patient care, as well as improve their customer experience. Municipal governments are using IoT data to manage traffic flow better, or to increase the availability of central-city parking, thereby reducing congestion and energy use. In the Forbes Insights survey, 97% of leading companies report IoT has enabled their organizations to expand or transform themselves into new lines of business. By contrast, most learners in the survey, 71%, have yet to see such advantages.
  • Data quality and variety matters. A forward-looking IoT effort requires a variety of data to ensure a complete picture of customers or operations. This data should also be trustworthy, in that it is well vetted and includes humans in the loop for monitoring. Quality of data sources is also a key element in IoT success, and leaders report employing data from a range of sources, including mobile phones, audio devices, cameras and sensors.
  • IoT takes customer service and customer experience to the next level. Up until now, a typical business model consisted of shipping a product to a customer or supplier in the middle, while relying on syndicated market research for feedback until the next buy cycle. Now, with IoT, companies connect to their customers 24/7. Leaders in the Forbes Insights survey report they are employing their IoT networks to deliver new or updated services directly to their customers via their IoT networks. Ninety-six percent also report having new IoT-borne services, versus only 29% of laggards. For example, elevator manufacturers are now moving into the service business, providing proactive maintenance packages based on analytic data streaming from installed units.

For organizations still learning or struggling with IoT, there is now tangible proof that this new paradigm delivers impressive business results. The leaders identified in the Forbes Insights survey have taken IoT to the next level by infusing it throughout their businesses and being open to learning all the possibilities it offers.

New “Network 2030” Group Asks: What Comes After 5G?

This article originally appeared on IEEE Spectrum. by Michael Koziol.

If you listen to the hype about 5G, with its promises of self-driving vehicles and immersive virtual reality, it doesn’t take long to realize how much data the coming generation of wireless will require. But have engineers been so preoccupied with delivering low-latency networks to feed data-hungry applications that they’ve forgotten about the rest of our vast, tangled telecommunications network?

That concern has sparked some researchers to start thinking about where all that data will go after it travels from your phone to the nearest cell tower.

The International Telecommunication Union, an agency of the United Nations that coordinates telecom infrastructure between countries, recently launched a new focus group to, in part, address an emerging imbalance in our wireless communications. The group, Network 2030—more accurately, the ITU-T Focus Group Technologies for Network 2030 (FG NET-2030)—will explore ways to close the growing gap between the fixed and mobile components of future communications networks.

The fixed side and the mobile side are both parts of the unified system that sends information to all of our wireless devices. Even so, Richard Li, the chief scientist of future networks at Huawei and the chairman of the ITU Network 2030 group, sees enough of a distinction to consider them as two separate components. And that distinction is where he sees problems beginning to emerge.

Think of the mobile side as the antennas and radio waves that directly deliver data to our devices. This is the side that has gotten a lot of attention in recent years with the advent of 5G, along with beamforming, massive MIMO, and millimeter waves. The fixed side is everything else—including antennas to beam data wirelessly between two fixed points, and also the cables, fibers, and switches that handle the vast majority of our long-distance communications.

“In the last few years, in 5G, people are working on the radio side. Right now, when people start deploying, it’s the mobile side,” Li says. “But the fixed network side is still 4G. They do not match.” Li is concerned that, with the emphasis on bringing 5G to fruition to deliver gigabit speeds to personal devices, the greater infrastructure has been neglected.

The upshot is that while the larger amounts of data heralded by 5G will zip through edge infrastructure without delay, older, less advanced infrastructure could very well throttle that same data over longer distances.

Li says that Network 2030 isn’t going to play catch-up to 5G. Instead, as the name implies, the group will look beyond that generation and think about what comes next.

That said, he’s prepared to take a broad view of what future generations of communication technology will bring. When asked if the group would think in terms of possible 6G technology developments, Li says he was asked the same question after a recent speech in Canada. “6G is not defined yet,” was his answer both times. “I’m going to act like a wily fox and let other people define it.”

In fact, he doesn’t want the group to think in terms of what 6G might be, but instead what it might require of the network’s backbone. “Fixed networks that will be able to support 6G networks: That’s the key,” he says.

A big part of the problem is that much of how data moves through our networks has been designed to be efficient for the mobile side. In the process, it has become inefficient and prone to clogging on the fixed side.

Take, for example, two people sitting on a couch, both streaming a soccer game to their phones. Li explains that, currently, each device will individually use a GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Tunneling Protocol to communicate with the network. In essence, GTP establishes a connection, called a tunnel, between each phone and the nearest router. Those tunnels allow each phone to communicate with the router individually, but can create a lot of redundancy when the router sends data further into the infrastructure.

If two people are both sitting on a couch and streaming the same soccer game to their phones, for example, the router currently requests and receives two copies of the same streaming data. “It’s a huge waste, because it just adds tunnel after tunnel on the fixed side,” says Li.

There’s no guarantee that today’s fixed networks can meet the guarantees of 5G, Li says. “It’s now best effort,” he says. The problem is that 5G promises low latency but has little to say on the topic of throughput. Low latency means little if there are so many data packets moving through the network that there are continuous delays.

For example, people feel dizzy using VR goggles if the movement delay when they look at something new is 20 milliseconds or more. 5G promises low enough latency to handle image capturing, framing, transmitting, displaying—everything needed for VR experiences in that time frame—which Li estimates leaves only 5 to 7 ms to transport the data through the network in both directions.

But it won’t matter how quickly the network can usually deliver the data if it’s always swamped by millions of VR users. Most fixed networks simply don’t have a high-enough throughput to push all that data without requiring it to wait at switches and routers like cars caught at red lights during rush hour.

And as some researchers have already started to suggest, 6G will bring applications with even higher throughput requirements. Li says autonomous vehicles, massive machine-type communications, tactile Internet, and holographic communications are all on the table for the coming years. Despite the promises of the mobile side and those building it, the fixed side just can’t withstand the coming surge.

“Right now, we are in a phase of Internet allocation expansion,” Li says. “Transport, health care, manufacturing: Low latency is important in all these cases.” For Li, the only sensible option is to think about these future networks now, to prevent a debilitating data deluge in the years to come.

Affordable 5G Could Fundamentally Change How You Receive Internet Service

This article originally appeared on Extreme Tech by Joel Hruska.

5G is coming — and with it, potentially, some enormous changes in how service is delivered. For decades, the gold standard of internet service has been fiber optic cable (so-called fiber-to-the-home, or FTTH). Dreams of a nationwide wired network delivering gigabit or greater speeds, however, have been stymied by steep costs and, to some extent, by relentless political campaigns by the ISPs themselves to ban municipal broadband and entrench their own monopolies. 5G’s rollout isn’t going to do anything to change the latter issue, but ISPs are salivating over the idea of the former.

Verizon, for example, has announced a new service for its 5G customers rolling out in four cities: Los Angeles, Sacramento, Houston, and Indianapolis. Sign up for the company’s service, and you’ll get a free Apple TV ($179) and a subscription to YouTube TV, at $40 per month. Instead of a wired connection, you’ll receive internet service via 5G wireless streaming. Verizon is planning a wider rollout in 2019, and of course, hasn’t said anything about price yet.

There are still numerous questions to be answered about how well these services will practically work. Companies have talked up 60GHz wireless connections and insane bandwidth capabilities over short-range connections for years, and many companies, not just Verizon, are interested in moving away from fixed wireline installations and towards wireless service. Google Fiber may have begun with a bang with wireline fiber rollouts, but the company has also telegraphed its own shift away from wires and towards wireless service using millimeter band waves. Frequency ranges contemplated by various companies for broadband deployments have ranged from 25GHz – 60GHz, so there’s a huge range of spectrum covered by these options, at least in theory.

But how much will these benefits actually accrue to customers? Based on LTE, I’m not particularly optimistic. Over the last near-decade of LTE service, ISPs have found new ways to charge insane amounts of money for internet by adopting per-gigabyte pricing plans rather than the unlimited plans that typified the 3G generation. Today, it’s generally impossible to buy cellular internet at anything like competitive pricing compared with standard wired service and it’s difficult to see how that would change going forward. Companies that have made such phenomenal amounts of money have little reason to change their pricing strategies.

5G’s promise is that it can effectively serve as a single pipe into the home, without a need to distinguish between wired service and cellular, or even between Wi-Fi and cellular. That’s certainly what Verizon is pushing, with the idea that its internet service would serve as the only connection you’d ever need. But that’s also before we consider the issues associated with 5G related to signal strength attenuation, line-of-sight transmission requirements, and the fact that both air and water absorb millimeter band signals depending on their wavelength (oxygen molecules in the atmosphere absorb 60GHz signals rather well and there’s a water-related bump between 20 and 25GHz as well).

In theory, cities are ideal places to deploy 5G — huge numbers of customers are packed into residential districts — but the increased attenuation also means you need more line-of-sight transmitters to reach individual customers, which could mean increased capital costs. As a result of this, there’s a general expectation that 5G rollouts will be far more expensive than their LTE counterparts. It should be noted that estimates on this point vary widely, with some analysts pointing to as much as 2x the cost of 4G rollouts while others predict more modest increases. One estimate from Bloomberg last year pegged the additional backhaul requirement as costing as much as $200B. Some analysts are concerned that 5G service could be so expensive to deploy, carriers will do everything they can to claim to offer 5G service without actually deploying it. Someone is going to have to pay these costs and it’s probably going to be you.

5G should be much faster than LTE, and it’s got the theoretical capability to extend gigabit service to more homes than can receive it now. The only question is, will it be deployed at price points that make it affordable and reasonable to use as a general internet service rather than solely for mobile devices? Based on the history of US ISP mobile data pricing, I’m anything but optimistic.

5G is the mother of invention

This article originally appeared on The Washington Post.

This is the third release in a four-part series about Qualcomm’s role in realizing the future of 5G. Click here to read Part 1: A homegrown revolution and Part 2: The making of an economic renaissance.

David Cole knows more about the human eye than most people in the entertainment industry. He needs to in order to keep his business humming. Cole co-founded NextVR nearly a decade ago. Specializing in broadcasting live events in 360-degree virtual reality (VR) environments, the company allows consumers to experience being in the front row of their favorite sporting event or concert by just putting on a headset. The firm has broadcast everything from professional basketball games to stand-up from inside the Gotham Comedy Club. But it’s not easy creating that type of viewing fidelity—largely because technology is still being outdone by basic anatomy. The human eye can detect movement at a rate that can’t normally be replicated by virtual reality footage, notes Cole. The difference makes it much harder to create immersive experiences that are photorealistic. To bridge the gap, innovators like Cole need to be able to share massive amounts of data, continuously and instantaneously, which simply isn’t possible with current wireless infrastructure.

“There are certain conditions that need to be met for VR to be a regular fabric of use,” he said, noting that the challenges extend to VR creators working in other fields, such as medicine, retail and architecture, as well. “We’re not there yet.”

That is about to change, however, with the advent of the next-generation 5G wireless network, one of the most promising new tech advances on the horizon. The first wave of the 5G upgrade, which will be rolled out for smartphones in 2019, is a crucial breakthrough for innovators in a range of emerging technology fields, virtual reality included, says Rasmus Hellberg, senior director for technical marketing at Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., a global company leader in mobile and wireless technology breakthroughs. “The first wave of 5G will bring an enhanced user experience, primarily for smartphone users,” he noted. “But there is a broader 5G opportunity on the horizon, such as delivering photorealistic VR and AR immersion.”

In other words, Cole is just one of many readying for this revolutionary wireless transition. Creators working with a range of technologies—from immersive reality to robotics to the Internet of Things (IoT)—are ready to leverage improved network performance to form the foundation of a new era of invention.

Tomorrow’s cellular fabric

The 21st century has been defined by massive digital leaps, everything from social media to self-driving cars. But these transformative innovations could never have come to fruition without Qualcomm’s own groundbreaking creations. These developments—technologies such as CDMA and LTE—helped form the wireless network, establishing the foundation for the digital innovations to come.

In recent years, Qualcomm has been working on innovations that comprise this cellular fabric, which in turn support an expansion to new use cases and new industries. Known as 5G, this breakthrough will be transformational for America’s next generation of creators, notes Avi Reichental CEO of XponentialWorks, a California technology investment and development firm.

“Although we already live in a reality of ubiquitous connectivity,” he said, “speed and coverage are still lagging far behind.”

5G will provide faster Internet with lower latency, the time it takes for data to travel within a network. It will also allow for more consistent connectivity. Qualcomm is helping to realize these benefits by bringing a series of products to market that will help make the network upgrade a reality. In July 2018, for example, the company announced two new antennae modules for smart phones that are fully 5G integrated. The result is a wireless infrastructure that can support the demands of a new era of invention. Reichental compares the advent of 5G to large-scale energy development in the 20th century. In the same way, he argues, that fuel abundance drove breakthroughs in a range of industrial sectors, such as transportation and manufacturing, the next generation wireless network will power diverse digital innovation—everything from the computerization of physical objects to artificial intelligence.

“When you contemplate the countless products and services that depend on connectivity and reliable user experience,” said Reichental, “the question is: what will not be positively impacted or disrupted by 5G?”

He’s not alone in this vision. According to a recent Qualcomm survey, over 90 percent of U.S. opinion leaders believe 5G will enable people to invent novel products and services. Nearly as many respondents argued that the shift will yield entirely new industries.

“If you look at 5G,” noted Hellberg, “It has the flexibility to support services that haven’t even been imagined today.”

Unlocking machine learning

One existing industry primed for innovation is robotics. Today, smart machines are extremely adept at performing perfunctory tasks, such as screwing in car doors or moving boxes around a warehouse. What’s harder, though, is programming robots to manage assignments with variable specifications and challenges—say, picking up a strawberry.

“We’ve been trying to solve this problem,” said Carl Vause, CEO of Soft Robotics.

The Massachusetts-based company develops agricultural robots, which use a visual recognition system to identify the type and placement of fruits and vegetables for harvest. The system relies on the constant sharing of data between machines. Through trial and error, one robot gains intelligence on the nuance of handling a strawberry, for example; this information is then broadcast throughout a network. Little by little, the entire fleet improves its ability to effectively pick one type of object, even though it can vary in size, shape and position.

“That’s where ubiquitous connectivity is very important,” Vause said. 5G will make this more seamless, allowing intelligence—the abilitiy for the machines to gain skills through the analysis of data—to be distributed on equipment itself.

Vause notes that his operations require seamless communication between robots and humans, as well. The fleet is overseen by remote human supervisors, who help the robots identify if a piece of produce isn’t fit to pick. Often based in another part of the country from the machines they oversee, the supervisors can’t work effectively if there is a communication lag or the signal drops. “With 5G, that goes away and you can teach the robot,” he said.

Hellberg added that one of the key benefits for automation, whether in agricultural or industrial settings, will be the ability of robots to be completely wirelessly connected. 5G  brings an extremely reliable and low latency link that can be used to control mission critical machinery—without the cables that they’ve traditionally required.

This optimism extends to the industry at large. Creators—and the funders that seed them—are gearing up for the next stage of innovation in the automation space. In 2016 alone, nearly $2 billion in funding reportedly went to robotics start-ups. These creators are banking on a wireless network that can help them deliver on the advances they have in development.

“We need 5G coverage,” Vause says. “The future of robotics is connectivity.”

The silver bullet to virtual reality

Like Vause, Cole sees the network upgrade as transformational for his business. Better speed and network capacity combined with lower latency all work to improve the photorealism of the immersive environment. “5G wireless is the critical link to virtual reality’s success. No question. Full stop,” he said.

This breakthrough has implications for VR entrepreneurship beyond entertainment. Imagine products that could allow doctors to use a headset to perform complex medical procedures or first responders to utilize rescue drones during an emergency, Cole says. And investors are taking notice. In all, tech companies working with AR and VR innovations raised more than $3 billion in funding in 2017.

Within the entertainment sector, Cole sees this innovation establishing a whole new normal for watching live events. Fans could have headsets at home that allow them to have the virtual experience of sitting courtside. At sports bars, big screen TVs could be swapped out for wearable AR devices. Photorealistic immersive experiences will be possible with just a WiFi connection locally—supported on devices as ubiquitous as a mobile phone.

“For these photorealistic experiences on sleek, mobile headsets, you need 5G,” noted Hellberg. “We call it boundless extended reality, because you can use it everywhere.”

It won’t be long, he predicts, until creators have the tools to deliver on that vision.

“5G in itself is a platform for innovation that will serve our connectivity needs for the next decade and beyond,” he said.

The making of an economic renaissance

This article originally appeared on The Washington Post.

This is the second release in a four-part series about Qualcomm’s role in realizing the future of 5G. Click here to read Part 1: A homegrown revolution.

Such high-tech scenarios used to live only in the scripts of science fiction movies, but they’re becoming part of our daily reality. In fact, clothing brands are already deploying AR to entice online shoppers back to brick and mortar stores. The appeal is simple: the interactive gadgetry isn’t only eye-popping, it improves the shopping experience, which could boost sales. Yet while immersive experimentation is happening today, imagine if your experience was augmented so it feels that you are really there.

That is all about to happen with the introduction of 5G. The next-generation wireless infrastructure brings immediacy and much more capacity—and is set to revolutionize a range of sectors, shopping included. Sleek mobile headsets of the future will use 5G to provide truly photo-realistic experiences. Meanwhile, by some estimates, the network upgrade could lead to a $12 billion annual revenue increase for retailers by 2021, in mobile phone sales alone. That’s a huge boost for the industry and the urban centers that thrive on its economic halo effect. More money from shoppers could translate to growth and jobs in those cities. And it’s not just retail and the surrounding communities that are primed to benefit. From smart manufacturing along the Rust Belt to entrepreneurship in mid-sized cities, 5G—and the tech that will support it—are on the cusp of ushering in an American economic renaissance.

Of course, the beginnings of that renaissance are already upon us. 4G enabled smart devices and big data to transform the economy, offering businesses new product lines, greater consumer intelligence and more efficient operations. But 5G will represent another connectivity leap. The new wireless infrastructure that will support these advances relies on technology developed by Qualcomm, which has been driving mobile network innovation for three decades. “With our ongoing research and development work, we’re continuing our commitment to inventing technologies that help drive this ecosystem forward,” said Durga Malladi, senior vice president of engineering at Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. “Our technologies are designed to expand the reach of 5G to new industries, new deployment and business models, and new ecosystem participants.”

Expected to be commercially operational for smart phones in 2019—and more broadly soon after—5G will increase internet speed and reduce latency, an industry word to describe how long it takes data to travel within a network. This forms the foundation for economic progress. And that all begins with new tech.

“Our technologies are designed to expand the reach of 5G to new industries, new deployment and business models, and new ecosystem participants.” — Durga Malladi, Qualcomm

The new tech economies

“5G will unleash plenty of opportunities to enable more innovation,” said Xia Zhou, associate computer science professor at Dartmouth College. Imagine the wireless network as infrastructure—a skeleton frame on which new digital tools can be built. 5G forms the building blocks for a range of technologies, such as artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things (IoT), which require network upgrades to be fully deployed. The applications are manifold, noted Malladi: “5G is what we call this unifying connectivity fabric—that also serves as a platform for future innovation.”

The collective economic impact of enabling this type of entrepreneurship is significant, and diffuse. Although the stereotype is that the tech boom is centered in Silicon Valley, in reality, innovators are spreading out, starting businesses in mid-sized cities across the country. The result is an influx of capital and jobs in a range of emerging innovation hubs. In Austin, for example, tech employers support over 100,000 local jobs and contribute around $20 billion to the city’s GDP. In Charlotte, another city with a strong tech industry, businesses in the sector expanded job counts by 62 percent from 2006 to 2016. It’s likely that this type of boom in mid-sized cities will only accelerate with the transition to 5G.

And according to Jesse Berst, who chairs the Smart Cities Council, it could have a profound multiplier effect. He calls tech companies the “anchor tenants” of an innovation economy. “Once you have a critical mass of tech companies, then your city gains and benefits from the organizations that arise to support them,” he said. In fact, research by a University of California, Berkeley professor suggests every new innovation job in a city helps create five additional non-innovation jobs.

“Let’s say you want to buy a car. You can sit in it virtually, look inside, pop the hood and even test drive it—all from the comfort of your home.” — Brian Lavallée, Ciena

Remaking retail

For larger cities like New York and Los Angeles, the boost to retail will be similarly significant. 5G applications go well beyond in-store photo-realistic AR experiences. Take, for example, fully immersive virtual reality shopping, said Brian Lavallée, senior director of portfolio marketing at the network strategy and technology company Ciena. “Let’s say you want to buy a car,” he said. “You can sit in it virtually, look inside, pop the hood and even test drive it—all from the comfort of your home.”

The upgraded network could also allow brands to better protect data, create video-driven customer service experiences and expand mobile shopping opportunities. To optimize efficiency and lower costs, brick and mortars could integrate digital innovations, such as smart shelving, which will leverage data analysis and automation to ensure the right products are stocked at all times. For those that prefer to shop from their devices, 5G could also enable improved tracking services for the delivery of purchased goods.

All of this “will give consumers a differentiated experience,” said Malladi. And better consumer experiences mean growth for a sector that supports many jobs. By 2035, 5G could enable $1.3 trillion in global wholesale and retail sales.

A new industrial era

The gains could also help restore manufacturing. Dartmouth’s Zhou points out that the shift to 5G will enable smart factories, which could boost growth in Rust Belt communities whose fate has long been tied to the health of the industrial sector. These factories could leverage connected devices, data-rich sensors and robotics to achieve greater efficiency and productivity. Earlier this year, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. offered a peek into this future, demonstrating the ability to run an industrial ethernet—a connected localized system of computers in a manufacturing environment—over a 5G wireless network.

The difference between 4G and 5G will be noticeable when “moving control of machinery to a wireless link,” Malladi said. “Latency affects the ability to replace wired connections in factory but also requires new levels of reliability not possible today.” Smart factories could lead to estimated savings of nearly $60 billion annually for the sector, and within two decades manufacturing could see almost $3.4 trillion in 5G-enabled sales activity.

Antoine van Agtmael‏, a senior adviser at FP Analytics, a public policy advisory firm in Washington, D.C., and author of “The Smartest Places on Earth,” argues that this innovation is driven in part by collaboration between manufacturing and research institutions in post-industrial cities. “If you go look in Pittsburgh, if you go look at Akron, Ohio, if you go look at Minneapolis, if you go look at Portland, Oregon,” he said. “A lot of new growth is taking place.”

Looking ahead to a wireless network upgrade, that type of growth may become the norm in a diverse range of industries and geographic areas. Across all sectors, the transition to 5G will boost real global GDP growth by $3 trillion and produce over 20 million jobs by 2035. It’s the backbone, said Malladi, of an economy on the brink of revolution.

But first, he said “we need the foundation which is first coming in the form of Smartphones in consumers hands in 2019.”

A homegrown revolution

This article originally appeared on The Washington Post.

This is the first release in a four-part series about Qualcomm’s role in realizing the future of 5G.

In January, the chip maker and technology innovator Qualcomm made a remarkable announcement: The company was partnering with an American automaker to help cars communicate. The duo would work to roll out technology that would enable vehicles to link with smart traffic infrastructure, road sensors, and even bicycles—all with the goal of making cities safer and more efficient. These smart cars would be able to sync with street lights to reduce congestion and even predict collisions before they happen.

But to do that, you need a pretty powerful signal.

That’s where Qualcomm comes in. The company is a leader in developing and commercializing technologies for what’s known as 5G, the next-generation wireless network. With commercial launches expected to start in 2019, 5G is set to unleash a revolution in digital innovation. Both stronger and faster than 4G, its predecessor, the enhanced platform provides the foundation to build everything from smart transportation to high-definition virtual reality. It’s a seismic breakthrough for the San Diego-based inventor—one that can drive economic and entrepreneurial transformation for decades to come.

Connectivity is at the heart of modern life. Smart phones allow people to socialize with their friends from a touchscreen. Laptops and other devices have fundamentally altered business, turning any place with Internet into an office. Streaming services deliver entertainment on-demand while retail commerce can stretch across time zones and borders.

For over 30 years, Qualcomm has enabled all of this, with inventions like CDMA and then LTE that laid the foundation for next generation technologies. As more and more industries and devices are connected via mobile networks, Qualcomm is pioneering many new technologies to meet 5G’s expanded and radically diverse connectivity needs for the next decade.

“Wireless coverage is becoming as important as electricity,” said Durga Malladi, senior vice president of engineering at Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. “We expect 5G to be everywhere to spur innovation through a unifying connectivity fabric.”

Today, Qualcomm is funneling its decades of experience into realizing this next-generation infrastructure. As compared to 4G, 5G has the potential to offer quicker Internet for users, increasing connectivity and allowing for more devices to communicate simultaneously.

These breakthroughs have the potential to generate huge economic gains across the United States. Retail-heavy urban centers will benefit as 5G improves the in-store experience and expands virtual shopping for customers. Meanwhile, emerging tech hubs like San Diego and Austin will continue to flourish as improved wireless sparks start-up innovation. The Rust Belt will even be revitalized as connected factories are able to boost production and improve workforce safety. In all, the transition to 5G is expected to boost global GDP growth by $3 trillion dollars and produce over 20 million jobs around the world by 2035, according to a recent study commissioned by Qualcomm.

“[5G] will be the vehicle for technical innovations on multiple fronts,” noted Swarun Kumar, an assistant professor of electrical engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. He expects the advancement to usher in a new era of creativity from American entrepreneurs. One area where he sees the potential for major improvements is in immersive tech and high-definition video, with applications that extend beyond gaming and entertainment. Imagine a future where an architect, wearing a VR headset, could see a building as it was being designed? Another sector ripe for innovation is the Internet of Things (IoT), which can benefit from the ability to connect more devices and crunch more data. Here the possibilities that arise from the availability of 5G infrastructure are vast—everything from highly-efficient smart power grids to hospital monitoring systems.

These types of breakthroughs can also significantly impact the urban centers of tomorrow. The stronger network can form the foundation for a range of smart city components that go well beyond connected cars. Skyscrapers can leverage 5G to monitor and optimize their own energy consumption, city health inspectors could digitize water infrastructure to test for lead in real-time and cars will be able to link with smart infrastructure to find parking spaces faster.

Put simply, we’re on the cusp of a transformational period of American innovation—but one that can’t fully be realized without more capable, adaptable technologies and infrastructure. And Qualcomm, with its homegrown experience in inventing the best in wireless technologies, is the type of enterprise that can deliver on this promise.

“We’ve been working on 5G for a long time and see exciting opportunities in this space,” said Malladi.